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Upper School Library: Citation Help

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Citation Help

 

IN-TEXT CITATIONS

 

When citing in the text of your essay, use the last name of the author followed by the page number. 

Ex:  (Gibbs 47). 

When citing a play, give the act, scene, and line numbers.

Ex:  (3.4.345-349).  

SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER

Look closely at this example, including Works Cited, from the Purdue OWL website.

WORKS CITED PAGE

Carefully follow the format of the Purdue OWL Sample Works Cited page.

BOOKS

Book with one author
Butler, Blythe. 
Colleges that Promote Creativity. Random House, 2015. 

Author last name, Author first name. Title of book. Publisher, year. 

 

Book with two authors   

Bane, Mia, and Elizabeth Gibbs. Avant-Garde Theater in the West Hills: One School’s Story. Ionesco Press, 2016. 
Author last name, Author first name, and Author first name Author last name.  Title of book.  Publisher, year.

 

Book with three or more authors 

(instead of listing all the authors, list the first author, followed by “et al,” which is the Latin term for “and others.”)

Ledoux, Veronica, et al.  One Hundred Viruses That Will Make You Wash Your Hands More Vigorously Than Lady MacBeth. Scientifica Publishers, 2016. 

Author last name, Author first name, et al. Title of book. Publisher, year. 

Book by a corporate author
Oregon State University, Catlin Gabel School, or Adidas Corporation are examples of corporate authors.
Academy of American Poets. Speechmaking in Perfect Trochaic Tetrameter. Loquacity Publishing, 2015.
Organization. Title. Publisher, year.


Chapter or essay in a book

Lighthiser, Amanda. "Yoga Will Help Students Focus Before a Test." Mindfulness in the Curriculum, edited by Mia Bane, Calm Waters Press, 2014, pp. 55-63.

Author last name, Author first name.  "Title of essay or chapter."  Title of book, edited by Editor first name Editor last name, Publisher, Year, pp. page range of entry.

 

Vindara, Isman.  "Dreaming of Thornfield Aflame in Jane Eyre."  Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, updated ed., edited by Harold Bloom, Chelsea House Publishers, 2007, pp. 45-59.  Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations.

Notice how the title within the title, Jane Eyre, is italicized.   Also notice the location of the edition and the series (in this case, Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations).
 

Work in an anthology

Poe, Edgar Allan.  "The Cask of Amontillado."  Disturbing Stories to Prevent A Good Night's Sleep, edited by Varnus Nightingale, W.W. Norton, 2011, pp. 1452-1466. 

Author of work's last name, Author of work's first name.  "Title of short story or poem or short work." Title of book, edited by Editor's first name Editor's last name, Publisher, year, pp. page range of work.

 

Heaney, Seamus.  "Visitant." Opened Ground:  Selected Poems, 1966-1996. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998, p. 84.
Note that this example is for a work in an anthology of the poet's work.  There is no editor.

 

A multivolume work
Whyte, Tien, and Beining Hu. The Epic Literature of China. Edited by Li-Ling Cheng, vol. 2, Stanford UP, 2017. 
Author last name, Author first name, and Author first name Author last name.  Title of book.  Edited by Editor first name Editor last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year.


Article in a reference book (e.g. encyclopedias and dictionaries)

"Exclusionary."  The Merriam-Webster Dictionary.  8th ed., 1999.
Title of the piece. Title of book. Edition, Year. 
Note that if the reference book is organized alphabetically, you should omit the publlsher information and the page number.


Book with an author and an editor

Shakespeare, William.  My Sonnets are Better than Your Sonnets. Edited by Ginia King, Bard Publishers, 2011.  

Author last name, Author first name. Title of book. Edited by Editor first name Editor last name, Publisher, Year.


A translation

Beowulf. Translated by Seamus Heaney, Oxford UP, 2004. 

(notice that Beowulf's author is unknown, so we lead with just the title in italics)

 

Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles, Viking, 1999.
Author last name, Author first name.  Title of book.  Translated by Translator first name Translator last name, Publisher, Year.

 

JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, & NEWSPAPERS

Article in a journal--single author 

Garnett, Sylvia. "Virginia Woolf's Extraordinary Eye." New Literary History, vol. 15, no. 4, 2014, pp. 159-177.

Author last name, Author first name.  "Title of journal article."  Title of journal, volume, issue, year, pp. page range.

 

Article in a journal--two authors

Vogel, Emma and Shiva Bhaktan. "Student Newspaper Editors: A Sociological Study." Modern Journalism Studies, vol. 35, no. 3, 2011, pp. 29-37.

Author last name, Author first name, and Author first name, Author last name.  "Title of article."  Title of journal, volume, issue, year, pp. page range.

 

Article in a journal--more than two authors

Ledoux, Veronica, et al. "Intellectual Life at a Modern Independent School." Independent School, vol. 39, no. 1, 2017, pp. 45-57.

Author last name, Author first name, et al. "Title of article."  Title of journal, volume, issue, year, pp. page range.

 

Article in a popular magazine

Steele, Daisy. "How to Field a Winning High School Baseball Team." Sports Illustrated, 15 Oct. 2014, pp. 35-37.

Author last name, Author first name.  "Title of article."  Title of magazine, Day, abbreviated Month Year, pp. page range.

Zaninovich, George.  "How My Students Took Over City Hall and Began Running the Joint."  Mother Jones, Sept. 2015, pp. 44-56.

 

Newspaper article

Jenkinson, Renee. "Making Smart Decisions:  How Students Help One Another." New York Times, 19 Sept. 2016, late ed., p. A11.

Author last name, Author first name.  "Title of article." Name of newspaper, Day Abbreviated month Year, edition, p. page section and number.  (Note that the article starts in section A on page 11, and may continue on non-consecutive pages.)

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES

Article from a database
Phillips, Sue. "Selecting Databases and Books for a Progressive School Library." Independent School, vol. 33, no. 9, 2014, pp. 45-57.  JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4564989.  Accessed 9 Oct. 2016.  

Last name, First name of author. "Title of the article."  Title of the Journal, volume, number, year, pp. page range of article.  Database name, stable URL without http://, or DOI number.  Accessed day Abbreviated month year. 

DVD of an episode in a series

"Brunch Village." Portlandia, season 2, episode 10, Video Service Corp, 2012.  

Ebook
Dickens, Charles.  Hard Times.  Kindle ed., Chapman & Hall, 1905.  

Last name, First name of author. Title of the ebook. Edition. Publisher, Year. 

Film
Romeo & Juliet.  Directed by Baz Luhrmann, performances by Claire Danes and Leonardo Di Caprio, 20th Century Fox, 2002.
Name of film.  Directed by First name, last name, performances by First name, Last name and First name Last name, Publisher, year.

 

Online News Article

Obama, Michelle.  "Improving the Diets of Working Class Teenagers."  Rolling Stone, 4 Dec. 2015, www.rollingstone.com/news/archive/2015/improving-the-diets-of-working-class-teenagers/456.

Author last name, Author first name.  "Title of article." Source, Day Abbreviated version of month year, URL.

a Tweet
@literati459. "Feminist critics are fired up about this one - #feministspeak," Twitter, 15 Sept. 2016, 2:45pm, twitter.com/literati459/39583838. 
Author's identity. "Title of entire tweet exactly as it is written," Twitter, Day Abbreviated version of month year, URL.

Website
NOTE:  There are so many kinds of web sources that it is impossible to provide examples of all of them.  Please consult these examples to determine how to adapt your citation to the source you are using. 

Wynne, Becky.  "International Trip Planning for School Groups."  Catlin Gabel School,  23 Oct. 2015, www.catlin.edu/globaled/trips.html.  Accessed 15 Sept. 2016.

Last name, First name of author, editor, or compiler of the page. "Title of the page." Title of the overall website, Day Shortened version of month, Year last updated, URL.  Accessed Day Shortened version of month, Year. 

(Note:  When the overall website title is the same as the publisher/sponsoring institution, you need to only list it once.)

 

Dissertation or Thesis from an online depository 

Swengle, Marjorie. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Disapproving Gaze:  Religion Questioned in The Scarlet Letter. 2019. Stanford U, PhD dissertation, ProQuest, search.proquest.com/docview/4568893?accountid=7122.

Author last name, Author first name.  Title of dissertation or thesis.  Year. Institution granting the degree, Name of digital depository, URL.

 

YouTube video

Ellenberg, Lisa.  "Creating a Compelling Winter's Tale for your Lower School Listener."  YouTube, uploaded by Derek King, 9 Sept. 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=4idi9Eg.

Author last name, Author first name.  "Title of video."  YouTube, uploaded by First name Last name, Day Shortened version of month, Year, URL. 

 

Note:  If the author is the same person as the uploader, only cite the author's name once.  

"Reciting Verse While Sea Kayaking on the Columbia River."  YouTube, uploaded by Sue Phillips, 14 Oct. 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=5730GEg.

 

ADDITIONAL TYPES OF SOURCES

Personal Interview
Garcia-Rubio, Aline.  Personal interview. 17 Aug. 2016.

Last name, First name of interviewee.  Statement of type of interview.  Day Shortened version of Month Year interviewed.

CITING A SOURCE MORE THAN ONCE

When you footnote a source more than once on a page, follow these examples:

 

  1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 100.

  2. Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 144.

  3. “Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, accessed July 13, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

  4. “Google Privacy Policy.”

  5. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.

  6. Stolberg and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”

BOOKS

Books with one author
   Note:
1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
Author first name Author last name, Title of book (City: Publisher, year), page range.

Bibliography:

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

 

Books with multiple authors

    Note:

1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
Author first name Author last name, and Author first name Author last name, Title of book (City: Publisher, year), page range.

    Bibliography:

Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

When there are 4 or more authors, list the first author, followed by et al. (this means "and others") in the footnote.  When citing a bibliography entry, list all of the authors. 

   Note:

6. Derek King et al., Teaching Research to Kindergarteners (New York:  Oxford University Press, 2020), 58.
Author first name Author last name, et al., Title of Book (City: Publisher, year), page range.

   Bibliography:

King, Derek et al.  Teaching Research to Kindergarteners.  New York:  Oxford University Press, 2020. 

 

Book that is an edition other than the first

Note:

2. Sue Phillips, Geeking Out on Research, 3rd ed. (Portland: Penguin, 2019), 23-25.
Author first name Author last name, Title of Book, edition. (City: Publisher, year), page range.

Bibliography:

Phillips, Sue. Geeking Out on Research. 3rd ed. Portland: Penguin, 2019.

 

Selection in an anthology, or a chapter in a book with an editor

    Note:

5. Peter Chilson, "The Border," in The Best American Travel Writing, ed. Noor Benn and Fritz Kaplan (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008), 46.

Chapter author first name Chapter author last name, "Title of chapter or selection," in Title of Book, ed. Editor first name Editor last name and Editor first name Editor last name (City: Publisher, year), page range.

    Bibliography:

Chilson, Peter. "The Border." In The Best American Travel Writing. Edited by Noor Benn and Fritz Kaplan, 44-51. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.

Translation

    Note:

1. Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Classic Press, 1988), 242–55.
Author first name Author last name, Title of Book, trans. Translator first name Translator last name (City: Publisher, year), page range.

    Bibliography:

García Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Classic Press, 1988.

Book with an Editor

Note:

6. Miles Riderwave, Between the Flags: One Hundred Summers of Australian Surf Lifesaving, ed. Samantha Wavecatcher (Sydney: Surfboard Press, 2020), 119.
Author first name Author last name, Title of Book, ed. Editor first name Editor last name (City: Publisher, year), page range.

Bibliography:

Riderwave, Miles. Between the Flags: One Hundred Summers of Australian Surf Lifesaving. Edited by Samantha Wavecatcher. Sydney: Surfboard Press, 2020.

Online Book

   Note:

9. Elizabeth Arvidson, Emigration from Sweden: One Family's Tale (Portland: Anchor Press, 2019), 147, accessed November 1, 2019, http://www.textAnchor.com/Emigration/.
Author first name Author last name, Title of Book (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page range, access Month day, year, URL.

   Bibliography:

Arvidson, Elizabeth.  Emigration from Sweden: One Family's Tale.   Portland: Anchor Press, 2019. Accessed November 1, 2019.  http://www.textAnchor.com/Emigration/.

 

  Note:

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

If you'd like to cite a section or chapter of an ebook, enter the the section name following the publication info.; do not use page numbers as they might vary depending on the website you are using.

    Bibliography:

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

 

Reference book consulted online
NOTE:
4. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, Academic ed., s.v. "Civil War," accessed March 4, 2019, http://academic.eb.com/EBterms/topic/45687/Civil-War.
Title of Source, Edition, s.v. "Title of entry," accessed Month day, year, URL.

NOTE:  s.v. stands for "sub verbo," which means "under the word." In other words, the term or phrase you looked up.

 

7. Dictionary of American History, 3rd ed., s.v. "Freedom Riders," by Sheilah R. Keppen, accessed November 13, 2019, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3401801608/UHIC?u=catlin&sid=UHIC&xid=4c1b808c.

Title of Source, Edition, s.v. "Title of entry," by Author first name Author last name, accessed Month day, year, URL.
 

 

ARTICLES IN JOURNALS & MAGAZINES
Article in a Print Journal

Note:
1. Susan Peck MacDonald and Anna Liu, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.
Author first name Author last name and Author first name Author last name, "Title of Article," Title of Journal volume, number (year): page.
   
Bibliography:
MacDonald, Susan Peck and Anna Liu. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Article in a Database

Be sure to use a stable URL or DOI to show where you found the article.

Note:

1. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
Author first name Author last name, "Title of Article," Title of Journal volume, number (year): page, accessed Month day, year, stable URL or DOI.

    Bibliography:

Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

 

Article in an Online Magazine

   Note:

1. Sasha Vlaskos, "Trump Impeachment Hearings Full of Dramatic Moments," Salon, November 11, 2019, http://www.salon.co/politics/headliners/trump_hearing.html.

Author first name Author last name, "Title of article," Title of Magazine, Publication Month day, year, URL.

   Bibliography:

Vlaskos, Sasha.  "Trump Impeachment Hearings Full of Dramatic Moments." Salon, November 11, 2019.  http://www.salon.co/politics/headliners/trump_hearing.html.

 

Article in a Newspaper

If there is no author, begin with the title of the article.  Include the section, but not the page number.

Print
 
Note:

Mike Royko, “Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold,” Chicago Tribune, September 23, 1992, sec. G.
Author first name Author last name, "Title of Article," Title of Newspaper, Publication Month day, year, section info.

    Bibliography:

Royko, Mike. “Next Time, Dan, Take Aim at Arnold.” Chicago Tribune. September 23, 1992, sec. G.

 

Online
 
Note:

2. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.
Author first name Author last name and Author first name Author last name, "Title of Article," Title of Newspaper, Publication Month day, year, accessed Month day, year, URL.

Bibliography:

Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27, 2010. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.

 

ENCYCLOPEDIA, REFERENCE, & DICTIONARY

Print (no author):

    Note:

4. Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “salvation.”
Title of Reference Work, number of edition, s.v. "name of entry."

The abbreviation s.v. stands for sub verbo, or "under the word." 
   
Bibliography
Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed. s.v. "salvation."

It is not necessary to cite major, well-known encyclopedias in the Bibliography section.

 

Your US Librarian

Sue Phillips's picture
Sue Phillips
Contact:
Upper School Library
503.297.1894 x4550 (circulation desk); (503)297-1894 x4100 (voicemail)